The subject of this legal comparison is the impact of the Transatlantic Air Transport Agreement, which has been in force since 2008 and unlimited since 2010, on the competitive assessment of strategic airline alliances in the USA and the EU. Over the past decades, new market structures have been formed step by step, resulting in cooperation among airline alliances. Now, the agreement expands and unifies traffic rights in the transatlantic market. This creates new challenges for effective competitive control of airline alliances. Accordingly, this study develops recommendations for a goal-oriented competition policy.